During each event incidents may occur and hazards detected that require a response. It is imperative that the appropriate level of initial response is provided and adequate attention is given to the causes to ensure that the measures to prevent recurrence are identified.
A number of mechanisms exist for incident and hazard reporting during an event. These processes are designed for expedient remediation of issues and are aimed at a streamlined flor of information.
MA has adopted the use of a Targeted Risk Assessment (TRA) to capture the information required to assess and report a hazard or incident (Appendix 10).
You should wherever possible seek to apply the following approach to managing risks to achieve the lowest level of risk which in the circumstances is reasonably practical for us to achieve safety at an event.
Incidents witnessed by marshals or the promoter during the event should be reported to Race Control through the radio system with a follow up paper form as required. The report detail is then provided to Race Control and/or Event Control who can evaluate the hazard for action. Any significant incidents and hazards are reported to MA to be registered internally on the risk register.
When do we complete a TRA?
Who completes a TRA?
When should you complete a TRA?
When anything happens which could be dangerous to you or the next person who carries out the activity.
Risk assessment is the process of assessing all of the risks associated with each of the hazards identified during the hazard identification process.
The risk management matrix is a simple tool that can be used to assess a risk by evaluating a hazard’s likelihood of occurring and its potential consequences. This enables the user to identify the appropriate response and prioritise the implementation of controls.
Below is an example of a Risk Matrix that has been adopted for MA to identify the risk a hazard poses to people. The risk assessment matrix is broken into the following steps:
Identify the RISK; look at what is being done and consider what could go wrong.
A - Major
B - Moderate
C - Minor
D - Insignificant
1 – Almost Certain
2 – Likely
3 – Possible
4 - Rare
This Matrix is located on MA’s TRA form.
The first step is to measure the potential consequence if a hazard is identified and the effect it will have on exposed people. Consequence has been split into four elements varying from a hazard being Minor to a 'Fatality' should one or more people be killed.
The severity of the injury may be rated as 'major injury' if the potential result is permanent disability of the volunteer, rider or official or a 'first aid injury' if the result of the injury at most would be minor cuts and scratches.
The following table indicates the measures of consequence:
A - Major Consequence
Death, permanent or extensive injury requiring hospitalisation to 1+ people.
Significant hardship to organisation
B - Moderate Consequence
Serious injury -hospitalisation, broken limbs, stand down for duration of event
Significant review of organisational plans required
C - Minor Consequence
Medical attention on-site or ongoing attention to injury may be required
Minor rearrangement of plans required to address the situation
D - Insignificant Consequence
Minor first aid, if at all. No ongoing medical attention.
Localised assessment of affected issue to be considered
The next step is to determine the likelihood of the hazard occurring. The measure of likelihood is split into four elements ranging from hazards that are considered ‘almost certain' to hazards that would be considered ‘rare’.
It may be determined that someone would be very likely to trip over a star picket in the marshal area and 'Rare' for some-one to trip over equipment in the pit area.
The following table indicates the measures of likelihood:
1 - Almost Certain
Will probably occur numerous times or in many circumstances.
2 - Likely
May occur occasionally or in some circumstances.
3 - Possible
May occur occasionally or has been known to occur elsewhere.
4 - Rare
Is theoretically possible but not known to have occurred
The third step in assessing a hazard / risk is to combine the perceived likelihood and consequences determined below to identify the appropriate action.
For example, you notice that a storm has resulted in a muddy wet marshal area which could create a potential slip hazard. The determination of the potential risk of such a hazard would be a combination of the likelihood of a person being exposed, 'possible’, and the potential consequences, 'moderate'.
By connecting ‘possible' and 'moderate' on the matrix shown above it can be seen that this hazard is designated as a ‘high’ risk.
Senior Management (Senior Event Official) attention is required to prevent the likelihood of a serious injury and or hospitalisation. If the hazard is identified as 'Extreme' and as seen from the table below immediate action is required.
Document your assessment on the TRA form , then provide the Risk with a score to see how the risk is rated.
Where Likelihood and Consequence meet on the matrix
Immediate actions required
Senior Management (Senior Event Official) attention needed
Management (Organiser) responsibility must be specified
Manage by current procedures/continue current process
Extreme to High Risk:
Any risk score of “Extreme” or “High” on the matrix should be discussed and re assessed with a group of experienced people (Clerk of Course, Steward, Safety Representative if available).
The MA Risk Matrix indicates that anything extreme or high risk will require control measures or mitigating actions for the purposes of reducing the likelihood and/or severity of the risk.
The Targeted Risk Assessment will indicate the acceptable level of risk.
The risk ratings determined during risk assessment enable decisions to be taken on the amount of effort to be expended in controlling risks associated with particular hazards. However, any hazard that is 'highly likely' or 'certain/imminent' to cause harm must be attended to and the risk reduced even if the severity is low.
Those hazards identified as not adequately controlled can now be itemised in a prioritised list for action using the risk rating as a guide to those which will require urgent attention (or possibly avoiding the activity), and those which can be listed for action sometime in the future.
Risk control provides a way in which risks can be evaluated against a set of control options (the hierarchy of controls) to determine the most effective control method for the risk associated with each hazard.
This process involves analysing the information collected during the identification and risk assessment processes, and developing a plan to control the risks identified. A risk control list is provided below, which can assist in the allocation of tasks to relevant people and the prioritisation of controls.
The risk control process starts by considering the highest ranked risks, working down to the least significant. Each risk should be examined with regards to the 'hierarchy of controls'. This provides a method of systematically evaluating each risk to determine, if the causal hazard can be eliminated, or to find the most effective control method for each risk.
Hierarchy of Controls
Try to start here
Reduce by physical controls
Reduce by admin warning
Use PPE (Personal Protection Equipment)
The hierarchy of controls was developed to find the most effective control measures for hazards. The controls hierarchy is divided into three levels:
Hierarchy of Controls levels
Eliminate of avoid the hazard
Minimise the risk
Substitute with a lesser hazard
Modify the activity or process
Isolate the hazard
Introduce physical controls
Institute back-up controls
Implement administrative controls (such as signs) and safe work practices
Require Personal Protective Equipment to be used.
To determine the best control measure, consider each of the 'hierarchy of control' options starting at the top and working down. The higher on the list the control you choose, the better the results should be. Unless you completely eliminate the hazard, which is the first control option, you may need to consider using more than one control at one time.
Both elimination and substitution control the hazard itself. They are more effective in reducing risk than controls which reduce exposure which subsequently do not reduce the hazard itself (such as substitution or isolation).
Controlling exposure does not generally reduce the consequence or severity of the risk - it can however reduce the likelihood of harm occurring.
In many cases, it will be necessary to use more than one control method. Back-up controls (such as personal protective equipment and administrative controls) should only be used as a last resort or as a support to other control measures.
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) ranges from rain coats, waterproof clothing, gloves, thermals to hat, sunscreen long sleeve breathable tops and high visibility vests. Due to the nature of motorcycling sport and the risk it has to volunteers and officials, it is likely that PPE is used in conjunction with other control methods.
Record your assessment on the second page of the TRA.
This section should be used to describe the risks / hazards you have identified along with the risk score allocated to each risk. You can also document the controls and treatment that you believe is appropriate for the risk.
It is most important that the conclusions reached about risks are documented and that any supporting information on how that decision was made is included on the TRA form. This is important to demonstrate how a decision was achieved with regard to investigating hazards.
Once the risks associated with all of the hazards identified have been assessed and control measures have been introduced, the risk assessment exercise can be repeated to decide if the residual risk has been reduced or is now adequately controlled.
Risks should be assigned to a responsible person for rectification. This should also be documented on the TRA along with any controls put in place to eliminate or reduce the hazard / risk.
Ongoing assessment is important to monitor the risk to see if the controls put in place are effective. A responsible person should review the treatment and or controls applied to ensure the risk has been reduced or eliminated and that the controls are effective.
If you are unsure with any of the Risk Management process please contact MA’s Risk and Compliance Manager for assistance.
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